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Cardiology is the healthcare field that study and deal to treat heart health problems.


The term Heart Disease is often used to refer to the term cardiovascular disease.


Cardiovascular disease generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke.

In other ways cardiovascular disease means heart conditions that include diseased vessels, structural problems, and blood clots.

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Symptoms may vary depending on the specific condition. Some conditions may initially cause no symptoms at all.

However, typical symptoms of an underlying cardiovascular issue include:

  • Pain or pressure in the chest, which may indicate angina

  • Pain or discomfort in the arms, left shoulder, elbows, jaw, or back

  • Shortness of breath

  • Nausea and fatigue

  • Lightheadedness or dizziness

  • Cold sweats



Many types of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may occur as a complication of atherosclerosis.

Damage to the circulatory system can also result from diabetes and other health conditions, such as a virus, an inflammatory process such as myocarditis, or a structural problem present from birth (congenital heart disease).

Cardiovascular disease often results from high blood pressure, which produces no symptoms. It is therefore vital that people undergo regular screening for high blood pressure.


Risk Factors


Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) include:

  • High blood pressure, or hypertension

  • Atherosclerosis or blockages in the arteries

  • Radiation therapy

  • Smoking

  • Poor sleep hygiene

  • High blood cholesterol, or hyperlipidemia

  • Diabetes

  • High fat, high carbohydrate diet

  • Physical inactivity

  • Obesity

  • Sleep apnea

  • Excessive alcohol consumption

  • Stress

  • Air pollution

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder or other forms of reduced lung function

People with one cardiovascular risk factor often have more. For example, obesity is a risk factor for high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes. A person may have all four conditions at the same time.



Complications of cardiovascular disease include:


  • Heart failure

  • Heart infections or cardiomyopathy

  • Heart attack

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