Endocrinology

Endocrinology is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.

 

It is also concerned with the integration of developmental events proliferation, growth, and differentiation, and the psychological or behavioral activities of metabolismgrowth and developmenttissue function, sleepdigestionrespirationexcretionmoodstresslactationmovementreproduction, and sensory perception caused by hormones.

Specializations include behavioral endocrinology and comparative endocrinology.

The endocrine system consists of several glands, all in different parts of the body, that secrete hormones directly into the blood rather than into a duct system.

 

Therefore, endocrine glands are regarded as ductless glands. Hormones have many different functions and modes of action; one hormone may have several effects on different target organs, and, conversely, one target organ may be affected by more than one hormone.

Symptoms

Symptoms of an underlying endocrine related issue include:

Causes

 

Causes of these medical problems are due to increased or decreased levels of endocrine hormone, that would be caused may by one or more of the followings:

  • A problem with the endocrine feedback system

  • Disease

  • Failure of a gland to stimulate another gland to release hormones (for example, a problem with the hypothalamus can disrupt hormone production in the pituitary gland)

  • A genetic disorder, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) or congenital hypothyroidism

  • Infection

  • Injury to an endocrine gland

  • Tumor of an endocrine gland

The majority of endocrine tumors and lumps are noncancerous, and they usually do not spread to other parts of your body.

However, a tumor or nodule on the gland may interfere with the gland's hormone production disorder.

 

Tests

Tests may include:

 

  • Blood test, to check your hormone levels for any abnormal condition

  • Urine test, to check your hormone levels for any disorder condition

  • Imaging test may be performed to help locate a nodule or tumor

Risk Factors

 

Risk factors for endocrine system disorder include:

  • Puberty

  • Aging

  • Pregnancy

  • Environmental causes

  • Genetic, family history of endocrine disorder

  • Certain diseases

  • Medications, including naturopathic medicine, herbal supplements, and prescription medicines such as opioids or steroids

  • Elevated cholesterol levels

  • Inactivity

  • Personal history of autoimmune disorders, such as diabetes

  • Poor diet

  • Pregnancy (in cases such as hyperthyroidism)

  • Recent surgery, trauma, infection, or serious injury

Complications

While some of endocrine disorders usually are mild and slow to progress, there are certain endocrine disorders that can lead to complications over time as continues unbalanced hormone affects normal body processes.

Complications of endocrine disorder include:

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Locations

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